The anatomical structures in posterolateral corner of the knee are complex and were classified to layers.The lateral compartment of the knee is stabilized by complex arrangement of ligaments, tendons and muscles, these guards against various angulations, rotation, and translation of the tibia.The Concept of posterolateral region of the knee was introduced as functional tenoligamentous structures.MRI interpretation would ensure better diagnosis and anatomical reconstruction. There are variable surgical techniques to treat posterolateral instability,so it is vital to know the appropriate anatomy of this region. This book which is based on a research study conducted on discussing anatomical and radiological ( MRI ) study of the posterolateral corner structures of knee. It will be valuable for anatomists, radiologists, and orthopaedic surgions and medical doctors interested in studying this region.
Single-core underground power cables can induce voltages and currents in their metallic sheaths. The sheath induced currents are undesirable and generate power losses and reduce the cable ampacity whereas the induced voltages can generate electric shocks to the workers that keep the power line. This means that it is very important to know the values of sheath currents and induced voltages and the factors affecting them.So this bbbkdiscussed the following: - Calculations of the induced voltages in single-core cables with various voltages levels from 11 kV to 500 kV with briefly studying the factors affecting them. - Studying the factors affecting the sheath losses in single-core cables by calculating the sheath currents (eddy-circulating) and their sheath losses in single-core cables with various metallic sheath materials with taking into consideration the following factors: Types of sheath bonding methods (single-point bonding, two-points bonding, cross bonding) and cable layouts (trefoil, flat), cable parameters, cable spacing, sheath resistance, phase rotation, conductor current, power frequency, the minor section length in cross bonding.
Understanding the contributions of fixed-N and other rotation effects is essential in reducing energy use and pollution potential of inorganic fertilizer usage and to understand the process by which a legume benefits a non-legume grown in rotation. Two rotation cycles were evaluated to separate the fixed- N from other rotation effects of soybean and cowpea, natural fallow and maize on subsequent maize. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design. The legumes fixed between 16 and 50 kg N/ha of their total N and had an estimated N contribution to soil ranging from -22 to 3 kg N/ha depending on the ratio of N derived from atmosphere and N harvest index. On average, maize following legumes had higher grain yield of 1.3-fold and NFRVs of 28 kg/ha compared with maize after maize. The correlations between soil microbial C and N, and crop yield indicate that these soil quality parameters can be used to predict yield. This book is essential for graduate students and experts in the fields of soil fertility/microbiology studying the contributions of legumes to soil quality and the mechanisms by which they benefit cereal crop grown in rotation.
This dissertation discusses piezoelectric ultrasonic traveling wave motors (USM) based on the piezoelectric dIS shear effect. USM produce a rotation by utilizing the high-frequency vibrations of astator which are transferred to the steady motion of a rotor in frictional contact with the stator.Over the last decades, USM have gained interest in research and application due to their advantageous properties of small dimensions, positioning accuracy and silent operation. Conventionally, piezoelectric USM are based on the d 31 or d 33 piezoelectric effect. AIthough the electromechanical coupling of the dIS piezoelectric shear effect is large for some important piezoceramic materials and is established in sensor applications, it is hardly used in ultrasonic actuators. This dissertation aims at assessing the applicability of the piezoelectric shear effect in such motors, devising appropriate models for the optimization of the same, and demonstrates the feasibility by studying a prototype of a new motor design.In this thesis, appropriate structural models are derived for different actuator geometries. These inc1ude beam and plate theories according to TIMOSHENKO and MINDLIN augmented to inc1ude the electric potential. These models serve for the ca1culation of free and excited bending vibrations due to the induced transverse shear. The inplane-shear vibrations of a plate are solved by an approximation.
At a time when the polar regions are undergoing rapid and unprecedented change, understanding exchanges of momentum, heat and salt at the ice-ocean interface is critical for realistically predicting the future state of sea ice. By offering a measurement platform largely unaffected by surface waves, drifting sea ice provides a unique laboratory for studying aspects of geophysical boundary layer flows that are extremely difficult to measure elsewhere. This book draws on both extensive observations and theoretical principles to develop a concise description of the impact of stress, rotation, and buoyancy on the turbulence scales that control exchanges between the atmosphere and underlying ocean when sea ice is present. Several interesting and unique observational data sets are used to illustrate different aspects of ice-ocean interaction ranging from the impact of salt on melting in the Greenland Sea marginal ice zone, to how nonlinearities in the equation of state for seawater affect mixing in the Weddell Sea.The book's content, developed from a series of lectures, may be appropriate additional material for upper-level undergraduates and first-year graduate students studying the geophysics of sea ice and planetary boundary layers.
Adopting a novel approach to the topic by combining theoretical knowledge and practical results, this book presents the most popular and useful computational and experimental methods applied for studying the stereochemistry of chemical reactions and compounds. The text is clearly divided into three sections on fundamentals, spectroscopic and computational techniques, and applications in organic synthesis. The first part provides a brief introduction to the field of chirality and stereochemistry, while the second part covers the different methodologies, such as optical rotation, electronic circular dichroism, vibrational circular dicroism, and Raman spectroscopy. The third section then goes on to describe selective examples in organic synthesis, classified by reaction type, i.e. enantioselective, chemoselective and stereoselective reactions. A final chapter on total synthesis of natural products rounds off the book. A valuable reference for researchers in academia and industry working in the field of organic synthesis, computational chemistry, spectroscopy or medicinal chemistry.
The monograph presents the results of research conducted in the Carpathian region of Ukraine, which summarizes the results of the influence of fertilizers on the formation nutrient regime of gray forest soil in short-rotation crop rotations, features of realization of elements genetic potential of new varieties of potatoes and oats are revealed, the estimation of efficiency of biological preparations and microfertilizers in organic technology of oil flax cultivation is resulted, the results of researches on studying features of formation of productivity and sowing qualities of seeds of varieties of different ecological type of winter wheat depending on weather factors and agrotechnical actions are elucidated, the influence of nitrogen fertilizer, modes of use and terms of mowing on the formation of phytocenological composition of grass stands different ages are analyzed, the results of researches of adaptability and productive qualities of sheep of Askanian meat-wool breed are resulted, the scientific bases of gossip breeding have been developed, the development of agricultural production at the conditions of slope agriculture in the context of providing the population with the main types of food animal origin is analyzed.
Students studying different branches of computer graphics have to be familiar with geometry, matrices, vectors, rotation transforms, quaternions, curves and surfaces and as computer graphics software becomes increasingly sophisticated, calculus is also being used to resolve its associated problems. In this 2nd edition, the author extends the scope of the original book to include applications of calculus in the areas of arc-length parameterisation of curves, geometric continuity, tangent and normal vectors, and curvature. The author draws upon his experience in teaching mathematics to undergraduates to make calculus appear no more challenging than any other branch of mathematics. He introduces the subject by examining how functions depend upon their independent variables, and then derives the appropriate mathematical underpinning and definitions. This gives rise to a function's derivative and its antiderivative, or integral. Using the idea of limits, the reader is introduced to derivatives and integrals of many common functions. Other chapters address higher-order derivatives, partial derivatives, Jacobians, vector-based functions, single, double and triple integrals, with numerous worked examples, and over a hundred and seventy colour illustrations. This book complements the author's other books on mathematics for computer graphics, and assumes that the reader is familiar with everyday algebra, trigonometry, vectors and determinants. After studying this book, the reader should understand calculus and its application within the world of computer graphics, games and animation.
This book presents a comprehensive treatise on Riemannian geometric computations and related statistical inferences in several computer vision problems. This edited volume includes chapter contributions from leading figures in the field of computer vision who are applying Riemannian geometric approaches in problems such as face recognition, activity recognition, object detection, biomedical image analysis, and structure-from-motion. Some of the mathematical entities that necessitate a geometric analysis include rotation matrices (e.g. in modeling camera motion), stick figures (e.g. for activity recognition), subspace comparisons (e.g. in face recognition), symmetric positive-definite matrices (e.g. in diffusion tensor imaging), and function-spaces (e.g. in studying shapes of closed contours).